terça-feira, 7 de abril de 2015

O Conselho de Segurança da ONU discutiu a Perseguição a Cristãos.

A pedido da França, o Conselho de Segurança da ONU, se reuniu para discurtir a perseguição a cristãos no Oriente Médio. Não posso deixar de lembrar que os muçulmanos chamavam os Cruzados de "Francos", porque a França tomou a frente das Cruzadas.

Participaram da reunião embaixadores da ONU e ministro das relações exteriores (representantes de "altas patentes") de diversos países. Houve discursos de vários países, incluindo o Brasil, e também da Santa Sé. Países islâmicos também participaram. Até a Organização de Cooperação Islâmica (OIC).

A Santa Sé mencionou o Papa Bento XVI e também o Papa Francisco. Dizendo Bento XVI defendia a abordagem de que a ONU tem a "Responsabilidade de Proteger" e o Papa Francisco disse que o mundo deve procurar "parar" (stop) com as atrocidades contra os cristãos.

Eu lembro que nesta fala do Papa Francisco, ele mencionou que ele não se referia a "fazer guerra" ou "bombardear". Mas parece-me que a Santa Sé e possivelmente até o Papa, estão esquecendo esta advertência pois pedem "ação imediata". Mas até agora as palavras sobre o dever de realizar um "guerra justa" na defesa dos cristãos ainda não vieram.

O Brasil pareceu dizer que as causas do terrorismo islâmico é a pobreza, a falta de perspectiva. A OIC foi bem mais enfática no problema religioso contra os cristãos que o Brasil.

 A ausência mais sentida foi a dos Estados Unidos, que não enviou nem sua embaixadora da ONU, nem seu Secretário de Estado (correspondente a ministro de relações exteriores),mas apenas uma representante de menor patente (embaixadora do Sri Lanka).

O encontro ocorreu no dia 27 de março, durante a 7.419 reunião do Conselho.

Não vi repercussão desta notícia no Brasil e pouca coisa relatada na imprensa internacional.

Aqui vão as falas da França, da Jordânia, da OIC, do Brasil, de Israel, do Irã,  da Arábia Saudita, do Patriarca Caldeu Católico (Louis Raphel Sako) e da Santa Sé:

LAURENT FABIUS, Minister for Foreign Affairs of France, which holds the March Council presidency, spoke in his national capacity, saying that today’s debate must go beyond an “alarm bell”.  Da’esh had unleashed terror, targeted attacks and mass beheadings, including against Christians and Yezidis.  Facing the total disappearance of minority groups, the international community must act.  “Minorities were not asking for favours,” he said.  “They were simply demanding their rights.”  The United Nations agencies played a major role and Member States must reinforce their financial support, he said, proposing a special fund for the return of displaced populations.  Military action must keep that in mind so that when Da’esh forces were pushed back, minority communities could return to their homes.  The international community should, among other things, support the coexistence of all communities.  Fighting impunity was also important, he said, proposing that the Secretary-General present the Council with a plan of action to address the situation of minorities in the Middle East.

DINA KAWAR (Jordan), citing killings, rape, forced displacement and persecution of minorities, including Christians, Turkmens, Assyrians, said they were being deliberately attacked by ISIS, which aimed to annihilate them in the region.  Girls had been enslaved, forced to work as suicide bombers, executioners and sex workers.  Such violence was new to the Middle East, which historically had been known for pluralism and coexistence among its many faiths.  Today’s challenge was to hold to account, deter and prevent impunity.  Violations against ethnic or religious minorities by extremist armed groups must be monitored and documented, and she proposed the creation of a mechanism to monitor the assets seized from minorities.  The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Syrian crisis must be urgently addressed.  Jordan, a custodian of Islamic sites, was making every effort to protect religious minorities, notably through its policy of tolerance and respect for religion, and it was hosting 2,000 Christians who had fled ISIS-related violence in Iraq.

UFUK GOKCEN, Permanent Observer for the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, said that “the alarming developments in Syria and Iraq should not be seen as civilizational or religious confrontation”.  The start of the terror campaign of Da’esh particularly targeting Christian and Yezidi Iraqi citizens and forced deportations under the threat of execution was a serious threat aimed at tearing apart the social fabric of the Iraqi people.  The Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation had publicly condemned the inhuman acts of Da’esh, and underlined that such atrocities contradicted the organization’s principles.  Its Secretary General had also condemned attacks against Christians in Syria and Iraq and warned against a “slide towards a sectarian dimension” in the Syrian crisis.  It remained concerned about attacks and vandalism targeting Islamic and Christian holy sites in the occupied East Jerusalem.  “It is vital that religious leaders, as moral leaders of their communities, play a responsible role to ensure communal peace and harmony,” he said, describing a number of initiatives in that respect.

MOHAMED ALI ALHAKIM (Iraq) said that his country took pride in thousands of years of cultural diversity.  Under its new Constitution, all Iraqis were equal before the law.  Recent events had caused “double danger” to all Iraqis and to minorities in particular.  Iraqi groups such as Christians, Yezidis and others contributed to the inclusive elected Government, which fostered national unity and provided a decent and dignified life to Iraq’s citizens.  Today, however, there was significant danger, as ISIS had imposed itself by armed force and had managed to extend its might over large areas of Iraq and Syria.  The Da’esh group targeted minorities, but its actions had engulfed all Iraqis without exception.  The group undertook systemic aggression against private and religious places, raped women and abducted children.  Thousands of Christian and Yezidi girls had been captured and sold.  Such violence and persecution threatened the Iraqi social fabric.  Calling the actions of Da’esh “war crimes, crimes against humanity and even genocide”, he went on to say that hundreds of thousands of people had been displaced as a result of the violence.  The solution did not lay with the relocation of minority groups.  Instead, the very existence of Da’esh must be eradicated, he said.

GUILHERME DE AGUAIR PATRIOTA (Brazil) described the widespread and systematic persecution of individuals on ethnic and religious grounds as one of the ugliest aspects of the recent surge of violent extremism in the Middle East and elsewhere.  The international community could not remain indifferent in the face of such savagery.  Brazil, as a pluricultural, multi-ethnic nation, assumed diversity as a defining trait of its identity.  It thus strongly condemned the persecution of individuals on the basis of their ethnicity or belief and rejected any act of intolerance or incitement to religious or ethnic hatred.  Violent extremism was a multidimensional threat and would only be efficiently countered by considering its underlying causes such as political instability, poverty and exclusion.  The Middle East and the world could no longer bear the burden of unresolved conflicts such as one between Israel and Palestine, he said, and called for a political solution in Syria, Libya and Yemen.  Initiatives such as the Alliance of Civilizations would contribute to dispel stereotypes that associated terrorism with specific cultures, religions or ethnic groups.

RON PROSOR (Israel) described persecution against Jews in Arab lands, where 1 million of them had lived for 2,500 years, following the United Nations vote to establish a Jewish State.  Thousands had been murdered in riots and hundreds of thousands more had been forced to flee.  Having succeeded in ridding their lands of Jews, extremists were now turning to Christians and other minorities, he stated, describing recent atrocities by ISIL and others.  Calling the Kurds the “leading force” against ISIL, he urged support for their political independence.  Citing persecution of minorities in what he called “tyrannical regimes” in the Middle East, he said that there was only one place in the region where minorities had the freedom to practise their faith, change faith or practise no faith at all, and that was Israel.  Christians in areas under Palestinian leadership were under threat.  It was time for the Security Council to break its silence on such persecution and give the world’s people a reason to believe in it.

GHOLAMALI KHOSHROO (Iran) strongly condemning the widespread targeting and killing of ethnic monitories by Da’esh terrorists and other extremists, and said that “violent extremism has emerged as an unprecedented composition of narcissistic, dogmatic and violent entities with a global agenda”.  That new force was a unique global terror network, active in recruiting as many as 90 countries, sharing terror tactics and romanticizing violence and bloodshed.  They continued to use social media to reach out to young people.  The terror network was “unparalleled in its brutality”, and its members falsely called themselves Muslims.  The international community’s inconsistent, incoherent policy and strategy in combating extremist groups fundamentally undermined efforts to confront them and even served to embolden them.  Indeed, a comprehensive strategy against Da’esh must address ideological, social, political and economic dimensions of violent extremism.  “If there is a genuine resolve to combat extremism, it must be translated into specific and effective actions,” he said, calling for a “united front” with a clear message and a coordinated strategy including the disruption of financial and logistical support and the sharing of relevant information.

ABDALLAH Y. AL-MOUALLIMI (Saudi Arabia) said Islam faced a dual attack.  From within, extremists falsely cloaked in religious garb, were carrying out killings and persecution, largely against Muslims.  From without, an inflammatory media campaign was being waged which included violence against Muslims in Europe, Myanmar and elsewhere.  He wished today’s meeting had not limited itself to attacks against minorities in the Middle East.  Islam did not discriminate among religions.  The persecution of religious minorities violated the laws of Islam.  That was used often to justify the oppression and marginalization of Muslims, whether at the hands of unjust regimes, such as in Syria, or Israel, which persecuted Palestinians.  He urged action based on two pillars:  combatting all forms of terrorism and isolating its supporters, and implementing international justice and rule of law — between and within States.  He pressed the Council to devise a “profound” remedy to the region’s problems, notably by acknowledging Palestinians’ right to self-determination and reaching a political solution to the situation in Syria.  Hizbullah and Houthis must be prevented from imposing their will through armed force.  Saudi Arabia continued to combat those who persecuted minorities.

BERNARDITO CLEOPAS AUZA, Permanent Observer of the Holy See, said that the fate of those for whom this debate had come too late should motivate action to prevent further abuses.  Christians and other religious minorities of the Middle East sought to be heard in the Council in a manner that was truly conscious of their suffering and their fear for survival in the region and beyond.  Noting the atrocities and flight suffered by Christians there, he expressed gratitude to the leaders who openly defended them as an integral part of the cultural fabric for the past 2,000 years.  He conveyed Pope Benedict XVI’s support for the concept of “responsibility to protect” as well as Pope Francis’ call for the international community to “do all that it can to stop and to prevent further systematic violence against ethnic and religious minorities”.  Delay in action, he stressed, would only mean more people would die.

Indeed, the situation in Iraq was reminiscent of massacres of Christians a century ago, said Louis Raphael Sako, patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church of Babylon.  “We are living the same catastrophic situation.  The so-called Arab Spring impacted negatively on us,” he said.  Positive coexistence should remain a priority for the Council.  He urged support for the central Government and regional government of Kurdistan towards liberating all Iraqi cities, as well as protection for Christians, Yezidis and Shabaks.

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