segunda-feira, 24 de outubro de 2011

Vaticano e a Crise Financeira


O Vaticano soltou hoje um documento sobre a crise financeira que se alastra desde 2008. Primeiro, deve-se lembrar que é um documento do Conselho Pontifício para Justiça e Paz, não é um documento do Papa, não faz parte do magistério da Igreja.

Há muitos aspectos a considerar, posteriormente eu vou analisar mais de perto, mas fiquei satisfeito com o que vi inicialmente. Serve como uma boa crítica aos que são católicos, mas defendem abordagens da escola austríaca de economia (extremo liberalismo e individualismo), como Thomas Woods Jr. Eu apenas tenho muita dificuldade desse negócio de governo mundial para qualquer coisa, por isso tendo a discordar quando o documento do Vaticano ressalta a necessidade disto. A gente já sabe no que dá isso, basta ver a ONU, o FMI e o Banco Mundial, todos completamente ineficientes.

Mas pelo menos o Vaticano ressalta a liberdade dos países para aderir a esta suposta autoridade mundial e quais devem ser base para esta autoridade: caridade e verdade. Isto é utópico, mas reforça a necessiade de ética na economia.

O documento se chama Towards Reforming the International Financial and Monetary Systems in the Context of Global Public Authority. 

Gosto quando o texto ressalta a necessiadade de ética na economia, isto leva-nos ao Distributismo (tenho um blog para tratar apenas de Distributismo).

Ressalto as seguintes partes do texto: 

Regulations and controls, imperfect though they may be, already often exist at the national and regional levels; whereas on the international level, it is hard to apply and consolidate such controls and rules.

The inequalities and distortions of capitalist development are often an expression not only of economic liberalism but also of utilitarian thinking: that is, theoretical and practical approaches according to which what is useful for the individual leads to the good of the community. This saying has a core of truth, but it cannot be ignored that individual utility – even where it is legitimate – does not always favour the common good. In many cases a spirit of solidarity is called for that transcends personal utility for the good of the community.


However, to interpret the current new social question lucidly, we must avoid the error – itself a product of neo-liberal thinking – that would consider all the problems that need tackling to be exclusively of a technical nature. In such a guise, they evade the needed discernment and ethical evaluation. In this context Benedict XVI's encyclical warns about the dangers of the technocracy ideology: that is, of making technology absolute, which “tends to prevent people from recognizing anything that cannot be explained in terms of matter alone” and minimizing the value of the choices made by the concrete human individual who works in the economic-financial system by reducing them to mere technical variables. Being closed to a “beyond” in the sense of something more than technology, not only makes it impossible to find adequate solutions to the problems, but it impoverishes the principal victims of the crisis more and more from the material standpoint. 

Sobre a Autoridade Mundial:

This is a complex and delicate process. A supranational Authority of this kind should have a realistic structure and be set up gradually. It should be favourable to the existence of efficient and effective monetary and financial systems; that is, free and stable markets overseen by a suitable legal framework, well-functioning in support of sustainable development and social progress of all, and inspired by the values of charity and truth. It is a matter of an Authority with a global reach that cannot be imposed by force, coercion or violence, but should be the outcome of a free and shared agreement and a reflection of the permanent and historic needs of the world common good. It ought to arise from a process of progressive maturation of consciences and freedoms as well as the awareness of growing responsibilities. Consequently, reciprocal trust, autonomy and participation cannot be overlooked as if they were superfluous elements. The consent should involve an ever greater number of countries that adhere with conviction, through a sincere dialogue that values the minority opinions rather than marginalizing them. So the world Authority should consistently involve all peoples in a collaboration in which they are called to contribute, bringing to it the heritage of their virtues and their civilizations.

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